Read African Writers: The Fury and Cries of Women, by Angèle Rawiri (translated by Sara Hanaburgh)

fury and cries of womengabonAngèle Rawiri’s The Fury and Cries of Women — set in the Gabon where Rawiri lived much of her life and translated into English by Sara Hanaburgh — is focused on a trio of strong women. Emilienne, the protagonist, marries a man from a different ethnic group over the objections of both their families. She is a professional success and earns more money than her husband. While she bucks traditional values in many ways, she still has trouble escaping her society’s pressure to provide children, and when her one daughter goes missing, the pressure rises. Emilienne’s mother-in-law, a strong, unlikable presence, continually schemes to unite her son with a match more to her liking. Emilienne’s secretary, another woman fighting to survive, provides a shoulder to cry on which turns into more. Rawiri creates melodrama as she shows these women sometimes bowing to and other times battling the social forces around them. Emilienne encounters corruption (“I’ve learned that in order to succeed, anything goes, and, believe me, I will use all means necessary”), despair (“Emilienne was swimming with broad strokes in the stagnant waters of apathy”), prejudice (“I don’t trust those women who’ve been to the top-notch schools”), and the future of her continent (“What will become of Africa, incapable of self-governance, victim of natural disasters, and attacked from within by economic and financial crisis? The least one can say is that the future seems frightful. Africa’s belly will soon be as sterile as mine.”). The Fury and Cries of Women is a wild ride with a bold ending.

Rawiri is credited as being Gabon’s first novelist in the afterword by Cheryl Toman, a professor who specializes in African women’s writing. (Toman also translated the first novel by an African woman, Thérèse Kuoh-Moukoury’s Essential Encounters.) This is Rawiri’s third and final novel. You can read more about her life here.

This is book #42 in my effort to read a book by an author from every African country in 2019.

Read African Writers: The Purple Violet of Oshaantu, by Neshani Andreas

purple violet of oshaantunamibiaIn The Purple Violet of Oshaantu, Neshani Andreas of Namibia gives a fictional and evocative portrayal of women heading households as their husbands migrate to work for months at a time. The main character, Mee Ali, is a happily married mother who does her best to look out for her neighbor and friend, a younger mother named Kauna. But it’s not easy: Kauna’s husband cheats on her and physically abuses her. Early in the novel, he returns from a night with his mistress and dies suddenly. As the husband’s relatives gather to decide what will become of Kauna, her children, and their property, Mee Ali tells a series of anecdotes from the past — when Kauna sought advice from her mother after being abused, when an elder in the village boldly reprimanded Kauna’s husband, when Mee Ali accidentally uncovered a secret about Kauna’s husband’s work, and more. The andecdotes slow the momentum of the book, but the portrait of life for women in a society that is simultaneously patriarchal and managed day-to-day by women is multifaceted and insightful. Kauna’s refusal to show remorse for the late husband who abused her is bold and risky. Over the course of the narrative, we encounter a fifteen-year-old girl impregnated by her teacher (“Her own teacher!”), the social hierarchy that the church reveals (“church attire contrasts the haves and the have-nots”), dangerously overcrowded minibuses (“our people don’t care about us… All they care about is making money. A sixteen-seat minibus had twenty-eight people on board”), and disrespected teachers (“To think our own government could do this to me!”) and nurses (“I thought all nurses were witches and b****es until I met Sustera”).

Here are a couple more tidbits that struck me:
  • On English: “People said that it was the English language that had made him crazy.”
  • Early in the book, a character uses the idiom “okwa tulwa mo” which a footnote tells us means “under her thumb” (as in, a man is under his wife’s thumb), but which literally translates to “he is stuffed in her anus.”

This is book #41 in my effort to read a book by an author from every African country in 2019.

Read African Writers: Reading the Ceiling, by Dayo Forster

Reading the Ceilingthe gambiaMuch of my work centers on evaluating the impact of international development interventions. We’re always searching for what we call a “counterfactual,” or what would have happened to the beneficiaries of an intervention if they hadn’t received it. Sometimes, fiction writers create speculative counterfactuals of their own, as in Yaa Gyasi’s wonderful novel Homegoing, in which two half-sisters on the coast of Africa are separated as children and exposed to wildly different circumstances which affect many generations.

Reading the Ceiling, a novel by Gambian-born and raised author Dayo Forster, takes a different approach: In the opening of the novel, Ayodele is turning 18 in her home country of the Gambia, and she has “decided to do The Deed” — in other words, have sex for the first time. She considers three candidates: a school friend that she admires, the father of her best friend, and another classmate who clearly likes her and so serves as a “fall-back.” After just a few pages, she chooses her fall-back option and we watch how her life plays out, well into middle age. But at that point, we jump back in time and watch Ayodele choose her other school friend, and we see how her life plays out in that scenario. Finally, we see what happens when she chooses her best friend’s father. (It’s Sliding Doors — or a deeply elaborate Choose Your Own Adventure novel for a Gambian schoolgirl.) Despite the fact that relationships for 18-year-olds usually aren’t forever, her choice has dramatic implications and illustrates how unpredictable consequences can be, especially as they play out over the course of a life.

As a bonus for me (an economist), in one of the storylines Ayodele dates an econometrics professor who jokes “about correlating distance to the border with the number of nine-inch mortal holes you could find, and how it would make a perfect example of causality.” (Instrumental variables in fiction! I love it!) Another character brings up deworming: “It’s very hard to sit around debating the concept of joy if you are racked with worms.” There’s a “dandruffed member of the Economics Department” named Engelbert Druthers, and Ayodele struggles in her statistics class: “Any luck with the chi-squareds and ANOVAs?” Oh, and in one timeline, she has to deal with “nosy bureaucrats from the World Bank.” At one point in my career, I was a nosy bureaucrat from the World Bank working in the Gambia! (I’m basically in the book.) If this isn’t your thing, don’t worry: It takes up little of the book. But it was a treat for me.

In a lovely analysis that compares three books that explore alternative choices, Melissa McClements wrote in the Financial Times that “Forster has written a thought-provoking series of narratives that place nearly as much emphasis on education and career in women’s lives as they do on love.”

Here are a few more passages I enjoyed:
  • On polygamy: “There must be something to be said for a husband who, to be fair, has to spend half his nights with his other wife.’ I make a joke of it. ‘After all, I’ll get some time in my head that I can keep for myself.’”
  • On faith: “The texture of my faith has changed. I no longer expect everything of it… Yet I find I still believe.”
  • On commitment: “The moral of the story is, if you want something, don’t halfwant it. Either want it properly and go and get it, or forget about it so you will not be drawn into someone else’s magic and get the decision taken out of your hands.”

(As a bit of service journalism, the ebook costs just $0.99 on Amazon in the U.S., so expect major consumer surplus.)

This is book #40 in my effort to read a book by an author from every African country in 2019.

Read African Writers: The Epic of Askia Mohammed, recounted by Nouhou Malio and edited and annotated by Thomas Hale

epic of askia mohammedNigerNouhou Malio was a griot — a “historian, storyteller, praise singer, poet, or musician” — from the nation of Niger. In 1981, he sat down with Thomas Hale and recounted The Epic of Askia Mohammed, which Hale then recorded, translated, edited and annotated. But it wasn’t easy: Much of the epic was told in the Songhay language, but one in five lines were “in archaic Soninké, the occult language of the Songhay, and perhaps other languages.” With help, Hale got almost all of this epic into English. Askia Mohammed was a ruler of the Songhay empire, based in Gao (a city in present-day Mali) from 1493 until 1528. The story is a wild ride. There’s a levitating city, protected by a hen (along with a python and an ox, but I was really focused on the bodyguard hen). Somebody gets called the “hat of a wild boar.” My favorite line, perhaps, was, “It is his head that is really a big head.” I know, I’m probably reveling too much in the different-ness of the story, but part of the pleasure here is the fact that the tale is so distinct from most modern fiction. It’s a unique, intriguing tale, and Hale provides both an essential summary in the introduction and detailed annotations for the reader who wants to dig deeper.

Ann Morgan gives a longer review: She concludes that The Epic is “a fascinating, if occasionally frustrating, read. At times bewildering and shocking, it is also enthralling. And despite the incompleteness of the text and the cultural mores that can leave the Western reader fumbling for the meaning, there are moments of magic where the pages seem to be stripped away and we are transported to sit in that village two miles south of the Nigerien capital Niamey, listening to a story told more than 30 years ago.” Isidore Okpewho writes a critique of the book (which I can’t immediately access since I don’t have a subscription to Research in African Literatures), to which Thomas Hale responds.

This book is #39 in my effort to read a book by an author from every African country in 2019.

Read African Writers — Akissi: Tales of Mischief and Akissi: More Tales of Mischief, written by Marguerite Abouet, illustrated by Mathieu Sapin, and translated by Judith Taboy and Marie Bédrune

Akissi Tales of MischiefAkissi More Tales of Mischiefcote divoireDo you ever read a book that’s so good that you want everyone you know to read it? These are those books! Marguerite Abouet grew up in Côte d’Ivoire, then moved to France at the age of 12. In Akissi: Tales of Mischief and its sequel Akissi: More Tales of Mischief, Abouet shows — as she explains in her introduction — “a different view of Africa than the one we are usually shown. An Africa that is full of life, rather than sorrow.” In these graphic novels, illustrated by Mathieu Sapin, Akissi is a little girl who lives with her family in Abidjan and gets into constant trouble. She encounters dangerous minibus drivers, tapeworms, and mean teachers. The stories are hilarious: I laughed out loud reading them. My brother laughed out loud reading them. My kids read and enjoyed them. These are appropriate for all ages: I think the most adult element is the word “hell” at some point in the second book. Run, don’t walk, and pick up the adventures of Akissi.

These books — both, but especially the first — are delightful. I’m not the only one who thinks so:

On Tales of Mischief:
    • Marjorie Ingall, New York Times: “Utterly unputdownable. Based on Abouet’s childhood memories of growing up in the port town of Abidjan (which also formed the basis of her award-winning “Aya of Yop City” books for older readers, which have been translated into 15 languages), the rapid-fire, action-packed tales are wild and antic.”
    • Publishers Weekly: “Sapin’s richly colored artwork complements Abouet’s tales, which bring to life universal aspects of childhood, illustrating the silliness, resourcefulness, and mishaps that are experienced all over the world.”
    • School Library Journal: “Realistic moments are not softened, such as when Akissi eats rotten fruit off the ground and contracts tapeworms that crawl out of her nose. But with its gross-out humor and plucky heroine, the collection reads like Dennis the Menace meets Pearls Before Swine, set in West Africa—and may appeal to fans of both.”
On More Tales of Mischief:
    • Kirkus Reviews on More Tales of Mischief: “Outrageously fun—this indomitable little girl is simply incomparable.”

If you like Akissi, then I highly recommend Abouet’s earlier graphic series about an adolescent girl in Abidjan — Aya: Life in Yop City and Aya: Love in Yop City. (Here’s what I wrote about the first entry, ten years ago.)

The two Akissi books are #38a and #38b in my effort to read a book by an author from every African country in 2019.

Read African Writers — Guantanamo Diary: Restored Edition, by Mohamedou Ould Slahi

Guantanamo DiarymauritaniaEarly in his memoir of his time as a detainee at Guantanamo Bay, Mohamedou Ould Slahi of Mauritania tells the story of a man who goes to a psychiatrist, complaining about a rooster: The man says, “’The rooster thinks I’m corn.’ ‘You’re not corn. You are a very big man. Nobody can mistake you for a tiny ear of corn,’ the psychiatrist said. ‘I know that, Doctor. But the rooster doesn’t. Your job is to go to him and convince him that I am not corn.’ By Slahi’s account, his 15 years of detentions were one long process of convincing the rooster (the U.S. government) that he wasn’t corn (involved in terrorism).

In 2001, Slahi was detained for questioning in his home country of Mauritania and then flown in a CIA rendition plane to Jordan for interrogation. In 2002, he was flown to Guantánamo Bay as a prisoner for further interrogation. In 2010, a U.S. judge ordered his release; the Obama administration appealed. In 2016 — 15 years after he was initially detained — he was finally released and reunited with his family. He never had any formal charges made against him. While in detention in 2005, Slahi wrote an account of his experience: Guantanamo Diary. His lawyers fought for years for the book to be published. When it was — with the extensive work of editor Larry Siems, 2,600 words, phrases, or passages had been redacted by the US government. After Slahi’s release, he put out a “restored edition” in which he does his best to recreate the redacted sections. Highlighting remains over those parts that were previously redacted, giving us a sense of just how extensive the censorship was. (The audiobook was recorded from the redacted version, so this is one case where I strongly recommend reading rather than listening.)

Slahi’s account provides an inside view to the torture that he experienced, both in Jordan under U.S. guidance and then under direct U.S. control in Cuba. Obviously he tells his side of the story — that’s true with any memoir — but it’s a crucial side, and it’s a side that many U.S. citizens don’t encounter from day to day. He tells his story with humor and humanity, which is particularly striking given that he wrote after years of being detained (and while still in detention).

If you want a sample, you can listen to excerpts read by Benedict Cumberbatch, Neil Gaiman, Jude Law, and others.

This is book #37 in my effort to read a book by an author from every African country in 2019.

Here are a few passages that stuck with me:
  • From the editor, Larry Siems: “I still struggle to fathom the scope and intensity of that ordeal, and what it says about my country’s commitment to the core human rights values of due process and freedom of expression.”
  • From Slahi, on The Catcher in the Rye: “made me laugh until my stomach hurt”
  • On identifying whether you’re going #1 or #2 in the bathroom: “In the countries I’ve been in, it isn’t customary to ask people about their intention in the bathroom, nor do they have a code.” (For the record, I’ve been in several countries that do ask and do have a shorthand.)
  • On tea: “Tea is the only thing that keeps the Mauritanian person alive, with God’s help. It had been a long time since any of us had eaten or drunk anything, but the first thing that came to mind was tea.”
  • On the anticipation of torture: “I hate waiting on torture; an Arabic proverb says, ‘Waiting on torture is worse than torture.’”
  • On video games: “One of the punishments of their civilization is that Americans are addicted to video games.”
  • On the secret police: “The funny thing about ‘Secret Police’ in Arab countries is that they are more known to the commoners than the regular police forces. I think the authorities in Arabic countries should think about a new nomenclature, something like ‘The Most Obvious Police.’”
  • On how Americans in Guantanamo speak English: “I learned that there was no way to speak colloquial English without F—ing this and F—ing that.”

Read African Writers: The Shadow of Things to Come, by Kossi Efoui

shadow of things to cometogoTowards the beginning of his novel, Kossi Efoui tells a joke: “It’s the story of three men together in the prison cell. The first says, ‘I got twenty years for telling a joke.’ The second says, ‘I got fifteen for laughing.’ The third says, ‘I got ten years for doing nothing.’ ‘You’re lying,’ say the other two, ‘doing nothing–that’s only a five-year stretch.'” In an unnamed African country — Efoui was born and raised in Togo — the narrator of The Shadow of Things to Come (translated from French by Chris Turner), a boy’s father is taken away to a re-education camp from reasons unknown, and his mother is whisked away to a mental hospital. Mama Maize — a woman who cares for lost children — provides shelter and Axis Kemal — a bookseller — provide guidance to our narrator, until he receives the call to the “Frontier Challenge,” likely a border war. But we’re never certain, for Efoui’s narrative is filled with more doublespeak than George Orwell’s 1984. Efoui mimics the way that the government maintains uncertainty with euphemisms upon euphemisms. Nothing is clear until the government comes banging on your door, that is. “Don’t wait for them to capture you.” The Shadow of Things to Come is ominous, circular, and effective.

Here is what a couple of others had to say about the book:
  • Matt Hartman, Bookslut: “This novel is a powerful reflection on the world we live in, a vision that goes beyond truisms about tyranny and control and freedom and returns our gaze to the humans at the center of it all.”
  • Gautam Bhatia, The Wire: “The bleak, almost nightmarish world conjured up in The Shadow of Things to Come, where everything but words have “so little existence”, is a disturbingly familiar one.”
You can read an excerpt here. This is book #36 in my effort to read a book by an author from every African country in 2019.